Legislation on the euro coins
Coins intended for circulation (normal and commemorative coins)
- COUNCIL REGULATION (EU) No 729/2014 of 24 June 2014 on denominations and technical specifications of euro coins intended for circulation (Recast)
- Regulation (EU) 651/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on the issuance of euro coins. (OJ L 201 of 27 July 2012)
- Regulation 1210/2010 on euro-coin authentication & handling of coins unfit for circulation
Coins not intended for circulation (collector coins, medals and tokens)
- Council Conclusions on collector coins, 23 November 1998
- Council Conclusions on collector coins, 5 November 2002
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2182/2004 concerning medals and tokens similar to euro coins amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 46/2009
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2183/2004 extending to the non-participating Member States the application of Regulation (EC) No 2182/2004 amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 47/2009
Legislation on reproduction of euro banknotes and coins
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2182/2004 concerning medals and tokens similar to euro coins (6/12/2004)
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2183/2004 extending to the non-participating Member States the application of Regulation (EC) No 2182/2004 concerning medals and tokens similar to euro coins (6/12/2004)
- Commission communication on copyright protection of the common face design of the euro coins. Official Journal 2011/C 41/03 (10/2/2011)
- Rules on reproduction of banknotes (ECB/2003/4) (Official Journal L078 25/3/2003, p 16)
- Non-compliant reproductions of euro banknotes (ECB/2003/5) (Official Journal L078 25/3/2003, p 20)
Legislation against euro-counterfeiting
To protect the euro in the euro area and beyond, EU laws aim to ensure proper coordination of anti-counterfeiting measures between national authorities and adequate penalties for counterfeiters under national criminal law.
EU legislation contains basic provisions on the gathering and analysis of technical and statistical data relating to counterfeit notes and coins and on cooperation between national authorities in EU countries, the Commission, the European Central Bank, non-EU countries and international organisations.
(Rules for euro area countries in regulations 1338/2001 and 44/2009 are extended to EU countries outside the euro area by regulations 1339/2001 and 45/2009.)
- Coordination at the Commission level - Commission Decision 2005/37/EC establishing the ETSC
- Analysis and identification – authorities in EU countries must send counterfeit notes and coins to their national analysis centres for analysis and identification (regulations 1338/2001 & 1339/2001).
- Withdrawal – banks and other credit institutions must withdraw from circulation all euro notes and coins which they suspect to be counterfeit and hand them over to the relevant national authorities (regulations 1338/2001 & 1339/2001).
- Authenticity checks – banks and other credit institutions must check the authenticity of all euro notes and coins that they intend to put back into circulation (Decision ECB/2010/14 and Regulation (EU) No 1210/2010).
- Regulation 1338/2001 protecting the euro from counterfeiting in the euro area and Amending regulation 44/2009
- Regulation 1339/2001 protecting the euro from counterfeiting outside the euro area and Amending regulation 45/2009
- Decision 2001/887/JHA on protecting the euro against counterfeiting (expert analysis)
- ECB decision ECB/2010/14
- Authentication regulation 1210/2010
A new Directive 2014/62/EU entered into force on 22. May 2014. This Directive is meant to boost the protection of the euro against counterfeiting by criminal law measures.
The Directive replaces Framework Decision 2000/383/JHA and supplements and helps implement the 1929 Geneva Convention on the suppression of counterfeiting. The new measures include tougher sanctions for criminals and improved tools for cross-border investigation.
The Directive obliges Member States to make the following conduct punishable:
- fraudulent making or altering of currency (production of counterfeits)
- distribution of counterfeit currency
- making and possessing counterfeiting equipment
- fraudulent making of notes and coins not yet issued
The Directive also:
- sets the minimum standard for maximum penalties of imprisonment in Member States: maximum penalty of at least eight years for production and at least five years for distribution of fake notes and coins;
- ensures that special investigative tools that are used for organised crime cases can be used also in serious cases of counterfeiting, thus improving the quality of cross-border investigations;
- makes it possible to analyse seized counterfeits earlier during judicial proceedings, which improves detection of counterfeit euros and prevents their circulation;
- requires Member States to collect data on the number of counterfeiting offences, persons prosecuted and convicted, and transmit these data to the Commission.
- Directive 2014/62/EU on the protection of the euro and other currencies against counterfeiting by criminal law
- Framework decision 2000/383/JHA on penalties for counterfeiting
- Impact assessment and its Annexes
- Press release IP/13/88. 5/2/2013. European Commission strengthens the protection of the euro by means of criminal law
Legislation on the cross-border transport of euro cash
- Regulation (EU) No 1214/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2011 on the professional cross-border transport of euro cash by road between euro-area Member States
The Commission publishes the CIT information necessary for the running of the CIT business on its website or, according to the type of information, in the Official Journal of the EU.
The European Union has Monetary Agreements with four small-sized European countries – Andorra, San Marino, Monaco and the Vatican. These countries are not part of the euro-area but are entitled to use the euro as their official currency and to grant legal tender status to euro banknotes and coins through the Monetary Agreements. They can issue euro coins with their own designs on the national sides provided they implement relevant EU legal acts and rules in fields such as: prevention of money laundering, prevention of fraud and counterfeiting, banknotes and coins, banking and financial law. Those rules are listed in the Annexes to the Monetary Agreements and shall be amended by the Commission once a year or more if deemed necessary.
- Latest update of Annex A to the Monetary Agreement EU - Monaco
- Latest update of Annex B to the Monetary Agreement EU-Monaco